Changes in Tear Cytokines Following a Short Period of Daily and Overnight Silicone Hydrogel Lens Wear

Main Article Content

Kim Duong, BA
Cecilia Chao, PhD, BOptom, FAAO
Mark Willcox, PhD, FAAO FBCLA, FASM, FARVO
Kathryn Richdale, OD, PhD, FAAO

Keywords

ocular surface inflammatory markers, silicone hydrogel contact lens

Abstract

Background and Objective: To investigate changes in ocular surface inflammatory markers after daily and overnight silicone hydrogel contact lens wear in healthy wearers.


Material and Methods: Twenty-six experienced soft contact lens subjects were evaluated at baseline, after 1-day of silicone hydrogel lens wear, and after 1-night of wear. Basal tears were collected at each visit and tear cytokine concentrations were quantified using multiplex [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] or ELISA (IL-8) kits. A historical control group of 27 non-contact lens wearers was used to compare absolute concentrations and diurnal variations in tear cytokine concentrations. Changes in cytokine concentrations were analyzed using linear mixed models. Linear regression with bootstrapping was used to assess whether changes in IL-1β concentrations were associated with changes in other cytokines.


Results: IL-8 concentrations decreased after 1 day of silicone hydrogel contact lens wear and returned to baseline levels the next morning (p=0.04). This same diurnal fluctuation was seen in non-contact lens wearers (p=0.03). With daily contact lens wear, there was a significant positive correlation between the changes in IL-1β and IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12(p70) (all p<0.03). With overnight contact lens wear, there were significant positive correlations between the changes in IL-1β and IL-6, IL-17A and TNF-α (all p<0.01).


Conclusion: A short period of daily and overnight silicone hydrogel lens wear does not significantly alter the inflammatory status in adapted soft contact lens wearers.

Abstract 394 | PDF Downloads 130 Video Abstract Downloads 0

References

1. Cope JR, Collier SA, Rao MM, et al. Contact lens wearer demographics and risk behaviors for contact lens-related eye infections--United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rept 2015;64(32):865–70.
2. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology 2011;118(6):1152–61.
3. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, 3rd, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52(13):9362–67.
4. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology 2008;115(10):1655–62.
5. Chalmers RL, Keay L, McNally J, Kern J. Multicenter case-control study of the role of lens materials and care products on the development of corneal infiltrates. Opto Vision Sci 2012;89(3):316–25.
6. Radford CF, Minassian D, Dart JK, Stapleton F, Verma S. Risk factors for nonulcerative contact lens complications in an ophthalmic accident and emergency department: a case-control study. Ophthalmology 2009;116(3):385–92.
7. Chalmers RL, Keay L, Long B, Bergenske P, Giles T, Bullimore MA. Risk factors for contact lens complications in US clinical practices. Opto Vision Sci 2010;87(10):725–35.
8. Chalmers RL, Wagner H, Mitchell GL, et al. Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Science 2011;52(9):6690–96.
9. Thakur A, Willcox MD, Stapleton F. The proinflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites in human overnight tears: homeostatic mechanisms. J Clin Immunol 1998;18(1):61–70.
10. Schultz CL, Kunert KS. Interleukin-6 levels in tears of contact lens wearers. J Interfer Cytok Res 2000;20(3):309–310.
11. Poyraz C, Irkec M, Mocan MC. Elevated tear interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels associated with silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Cont Lens 2012;38(3):146–49.
12. Lema I, Duran JA, Ruiz C, Diez-Feijoo E, Acera A, Merayo J. Inflammatory response to contact lenses in patients with keratoconus compared with myopic subjects. Cornea 2008;27(7):758–63.
13. Thakur A, Willcox MD. Cytokine and lipid inflammatory mediator profile of human tears during contact lens associated inflammatory diseases. Exper Eye Res 1998;67(1):9–19.
14. Willcox MD, Zhao Z, Naduvilath T, Lazon de la Jara P. Cytokine changes in tears and relationship to contact lens discomfort. Molecul Vis 2015;21:293–305.
15. Lemp MA. Report of the National Eye Institute/Industry workshop on Clinical Trials in Dry Eyes. CLAO 1995;21(4):221–32.
16. Johnson&Johnson Vision care. ACUVUE® OASYS™ Brand Contact Lenses with HYDRACLEAR® Plus. Package Insert. http://www.acuvue.com/sites/default/files/jjvc-media_enCA/pdf/package-insert-acuvueoasysastigmatism.pdf.
17. Liu J, Shi B, He S, Yao X, Willcox MD, Zhao Z. Changes to tear cytokines of type 2 diabetic patients with or without retinopathy. Molecul Vis 2010;16:2931–38.
18. Fullard RJ, Snyder C. Protein levels in nonstimulated and stimulated tears of normal human subjects. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990;31(6):1119–26.
19. Chao C, Golebiowski B, Stapleton F, Richdale K. Changes in tear cytokine concentrations follwoing discontinuaton of soft contact lenses - a pilot study. Eye Contact Lens 2016 Jul;42(4):237–43. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000182.
20. Hazlett LD. Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of keratitis. Ocular Immunol Inflamm 2005;13(2-3):133–38.
21. Palomo J, Dietrich D, Martin P, Palmer G, Gabay C. The interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine family--Balance between agonists and antagonists in inflammatory diseases. Cytokine 2015;76(1):25–37.
22. Hazlett LD. Corneal response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Prog Retin Eye Res 2004;23(1):1–30.
23. Uchino E, Sonoda S, Kinukawa N, Sakamoto T. Alteration pattern of tear cytokines during the course of a day: diurnal rhythm analyzed by multicytokine assay. Cytokine 2006;33(1):36–40.
24. Thakur A, Willcox MD. Contact lens wear alters the production of certain inflammatory mediators in tears. Exper Eye Res 2000;70(3):255–59.
25. Torres PF, Kijlstra A. The role of cytokines in corneal immunopathology. Ocular Immunol Inflamm 2001;9(1):9–24.
26. Cavanagh HD, Ladage P, Yamamoto K, Li SL, Petroll WM, Jester JV. Effects of daily and overnight wear of hyper-oxygen transmissible rigid and silicone hydrogel lenses on bacterial binding to the corneal epithelium: 13-month clinical trials. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29(1 Suppl):S14–16; discussion S26–19, S192–194.
27. Dogru M, Ward SK, Wakamatsu T, et al. The effects of 2 week senofilcon-A silicone hydrogel contact lens daily wear on tear functions and ocular surface health status. Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2011;34(2):77–82.
28. Carnt NA, Willcox MD, Hau S, et al. Immune defense single nucleotide polymorphisms and recruitment strategies associated with contact lens keratitis. Ophthalmology 2012;119(10):1997–2002.
29. Carnt NA, Willcox MD, Hau S, et al. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukins-1beta, -6, and -12B with contact lens keratitis susceptibility and severity. Ophthalmology 2012;119(7):1320–27.
30. Keijser S, Kurreeman FA, de Keizer RJ, et al. IL-10 promotor haplotypes associated with susceptibility to and severity of bacterial corneal ulcers. Experiment Eye Research 2009;88(6):1124–28.
31. Xue ML, Thakur A, Lutze-Mann L, Willcox MD. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in human corneal epithelial cells colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2000;28(3):197–200.
32. Yu JJ, Ruddy MJ, Wong GC, et al. An essential role for IL-17 in preventing pathogen-initiated bone destruction: recruitment of neutrophils to inflamed bone requires IL-17 receptor-dependent signals. Blood 2007;109(9):3794–802.
33. Shahrara S, Pickens SR, Mandelin AM, 2nd, et al. IL-17-mediated monocyte migration occurs partially through CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induction. J Immunol 2010;184(8):4479–87.
34. Kalsow CM, Reindel WT, Merchea MM, Bateman KM, Barr JT. Tear cytokine response to multipurpose solutions for contact lenses. Clin Ophthalmol 2013;7:1291–302.
35. Markoulli M, Papas E, Cole N, Holden B. Effect of contact lens wear on the diurnal profile of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in tears. Opto Vision Science 2013;90(5):419–29.
36. Chao C, Golebiowski B, Stapleton F, Richdale K. Changes in tear cytokine concentrations following discontinuation of soft contact lenses-a pilot study. Eye Contact Lens 2016;42(4):237–43.